by Rev. Fr. Dr. Dmitri Ross, New Zealand
Decree of Artaxerxes:
In Daniel 9:25-26 it is said that there would be 69 prophetic weeks till the Messiah would appear, and would be cut off (Crucified) in the midst of the week. This equals 483 years.
Ezra tells us in 7:8 that it was in the 7th. Year of Artaxerxes reign that the decree came, which would be between Sept. 4 58 BC to Sept 4 57 BC. This would be the 1st. Month to 5th. Month of God's Calendar (latter part of March to latter part of July 4 57 BC). This was when Ezra journeyed back to Judaea.
The date of issuance is amply proved from astronomy, business Documents and the Canon of Ptolemy. The true date is 457 BC fixed by the most accurate records of history, written at that very time. 483 years later brings us to the Autumn of AD 26.
Jesus, according to Daniel's prophecy, was anointed the Messiah in 26 AD., which was 483 years after the Decree of Artaxerxes to restore Jerusalem.
The next fact we need to understand is the age of Jesus when He was baptized and entered upon His ministry.'
The only historical account of this is written by Luke in 1:1-4. In Luke 3:23 it said he was about 30 years old.
Bearing in mind that there was no Year Zero as a lot of people seem to think, as it went from 1 BC to 1 AD. If he was 30 in the autumn of 26 AD, then he must have been born in 4 BC. Proof of this can be found in the Chronicle of John Malalas, trans by Matthew Spinka (Uni. of Chicago Press, 1940). John Malalas was an Historian on Antioch, Syria (c.491-578AD). On Pages 32-33 he writes:
"In the 39th. year and the 10th month of his (Augustus) reign, he commanded the taking of a census of all his lands, including all the the Romans held during the consulship of Agrippa II, and of Donatus. And all the earth under the Romans was registered by Eumenes and Attalus, the Roman Senators."
Using the October to October calendar Malalas used, that dates the 39th. year as October 6 BC to October 5 BC., and the issuance of the decree for the Census to July 5 BC.
Suidas -- another reliable authority -- and many others, add information about Augustus's decree, which proves the Census in Palestine was conducted the very next year -- 4 BC, the very time Christ was born! (There is an excellent article in Ungers Bible Dictionary under "Chronology")
Now we come to the part of the Messiah being cut off in the midst of the prophetic week (ie Three and a Half Years) which would make Our Lord 33.5 years old and take you to April in 30AD. The 14th. Nissan (Pesach) occurred on a Wednesday and he was buried prior to Sunset on that day and Our Lord said that he would be in the Bowels of the Earth three days and three nights as Jonah was in the belly of the fish and that would take to just before Sunset of the Weekly Shabat.
There were in that Week Three Yearly Shabats (Passover, Unleavened Bread, and First Fruits). Pesach being the Preparation day for Chag Matzos and First Fruits those being very high days and then you have the Weekly Shabat on the 7th. Day which proves to be the Resurrection Day as well and not the First Day. When the women came to the Tomb they were told that the Lord had already risen. According to Bible time The First day begins just after Sunset on the 7th. Day.
To Thee be glory and Praise, now and ever, unto Ages of Ages.
Crucified on Friday or Resurrected on Sunday!
How can we fit three days and three nights between a Friday afternoon crucifixion and an Easter Sunday sunrise? The fact is, we can't. So what is the truth about when Jesus was crucified and resurrected? Read the article.
crucified on Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday?
An excellent treatment of the subject that is consistent with our faith. The author presents a chronology of the events surrounding the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ in a plausible and logical way in an effort to resolve the question of exactly when Jesus was crucified and resurrected. Read the article.
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