Malankara World Journal
Malankara World Journal
Holy Week Special 2
Monday - Tuesday - Wednesday - Maundy Thursday

Volume 2 No. 68 April 1, 2012

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Gethsemane, Jerusalem
Table of Contents
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1. Editor's Note

2. Bible Readings

Syrian Orthodox Lectionary for Holy Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Maundy Thursday.

3. Sermons

4. In Agony Until the End of the World

It is written of Jesus on the Mount of Olives that he began "to feel sorrow and distress. Then he said to them, ‘My soul is sorrowful even to death. Remain here and keep watch with me.'" This is an unrecognizable Jesus! He who commanded the winds and the seas and they obeyed him, who told everyone not to fear, is now prey to sadness and anxiety. What is the reason? It is all contained in one word, the chalice: "My Father, if it is possible, let this chalice pass from me!"

5. Featured: A Week with the Lord

Below is a reflection for Passion Sunday based on Saint Luke's account. .. The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord until He comes when God will be everything to everyone. The liturgy thus shares in Jesus' desire: 'I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you' until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 'He took a cup, gave thanks, and said, Take this and share it among yourselves.' It's important to note that at this point the cup contains wine only; not the Blood of Jesus. ...

6. Book Excerpt: With Christ In the School of Prayer - Lesson 31: Pray without ceasing or A Life of Prayer

This is the final lesson from the book, 'With Christ in the School of Prayer' by Andrew Murray. With this chapter, we have covered the entire book. This book, often referenced, is a very important reference book on intercessional prayer, something Orthodox Church believes in greatly. Murray skillfully describes the role of the Holy Spirit within the church and exhorts Christians to use the blessings God has given us. This book is a guide to living a life as a temple of the Holy Spirit. We hope that you enjoyed reading this book as much as we have enjoyed in bringing it to you. ...

7. Confession – Is It Still Necessary?

One of the harsh realities facing the Church is the fact that many of her members no longer receive the sacrament of Confession on a regular basis. For one reason or another, many don't feel the need to go to Confession. Let's look at some of the common objections and discuss why the sacrament of Confession is still as relevant today as it was when Jesus instituted it 2000 years ago. ...

8. Jesus Christ Granted the Apostles His Authority to Forgive Sins - Scripture References

9. What Does Maundy Thursday Mean?

Etymologically, the consensus is that "Maundy" comes from the Latin word Mandatum which is translated "commandment." ...

10. Holy Week Timeline: What happened on Holy Monday and Tuesday?

11. Holy Week Timeline: What Happened on Holy Wednesday and Maundy Thursday?

12. Recipe: Pesaha Appam (Southern Kerala)

13. Malankara World Passion Week Supplement

Malankara World Passion Week Supplement has additional resources for your spiritual needs during the Holy Week. Read Day by Day commentary on what happened to Jesus during the Holy Week, articles, sermons, prayers, meditations, recipes, etc. will keep you ready to face the resurrected Jesus on the Easter Day.

14. About Malankara World

Editor's Note
When we think about the Thursday of the Holy week, what is the first vision that comes to our mind. Is it the Last Supper? In my childhood days, I recall lines of people going to church for confession a few days before Thursday. Everyone goes for the mandatory confession before Pessaha and the long lines to receive holy communion at the end of the service while we sing, "Rehasyam, Rahasyam, ..." It is 3 or 4 in the morning and the chanting keeps us awake.

Later I came to know that Pessaha (Pes'ho) Thursday is called Maundy Thursday. I had no clue what that word meant. It sure sounded funny. So, in this issue of the MW Journal, we explain where the word 'Maundy' originated. It turns out that the word "Maundy" comes from the Latin word Mandatum (Mandare), which is translated "commandment." On Holy Thursday, Jesus gave a new commandment to his disciples while washing their feet:

"A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another." (John 13:34-35)

I was thinking about this "new" commandment. Is it really new? Jesus had made clear that the 10 commandments can be broken down to two: viz., Love God and Love your neighbor. Jesus said these two covers all the 10 Mosaic commandments and the gist of it is "Love". So, love is not a new commandment. The emphasis given by Jesus to Love is something new. Before Jesus, in the Old Testament times and Mosaic Laws, sacrifice was given more importance than love and mercy. Jesus changed that with his emphasis on Love and Forgiveness.

So, what is the New Commandment Jesus gave to His disciples on Holy Thursday after washing their feet? I think, it is his demonstration of humility and His new norm of 'Servant Leadership.' Let us take a look at the relevant Gospel passages.

If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you. (John 13:14-15)

And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth. (Luke 22:25-27)

Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, "You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many." (Mark 10:42-45)

When Jesus came to earth, He came as a servant. He was a servant in His life. He was a servant in His death. He said, "Do as I do. Follow My example."

Not only was Jesus a servant in His life, but he was also a servant in His death. In dying for our sins on a cross on Good Friday, Jesus demonstrated how He was the ultimate servant. He died to redeem us from our sins. "He gave His life a ransom for many."

So, on Holy Thursday, Jesus was not commanding a foot-washing ritual. He was commanding an attitude adjustment. He wants us to be like Himself. He wants us to imitate His humiliation and servant-nature. He wants us to have a life of humble service.

To do this, to imitate Jesus, requires an attitude of love. The humiliation and servant-nature of Christ Jesus was prompted by love. Jesus washed the feet, He went to the cross, He humbled Himself and became a servant, out of love.

It was love, pure love, which led Jesus to humble Himself and become our servant.

Jesus is commanding us to imitate Him, to lead a life of humble service, to have an attitude of love. And this applies to all of us.

It applies to the leaders of the church. Peter told the elders of the church to be examples to the flock, not lording it over them but humbling themselves under the mighty hand of God (1 Peter 5:3,6).

It applies to husbands. Husbands are to imitate the humiliation and servant-nature of Christ. Paul says (an epistle read in our marriage ceremony),

(Eph 5:25) Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her ...

Husbands are not to be domineering and dominating when it comes to their wives. They are to be like Christ.

It applies to wives. Wives are to imitate the humiliation and servant-nature of Christ. Paul says (an epistle read in our marriage ceremony),

(Eph 5:22) Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord.

It applies to all church members in their dealings and relationships with one another. Paul says,

(Eph 5:21) Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ.

Jesus emphasized action over words. He taught his disciples by doing and demonstrating. He commanded us to "reflect Christ" on our faces by being a 'living testimonial' of selfless service. That was the new commandment. Yes, it was Love but something more than that. Love God, Love Neighbor. Be of Service and Imitate Jesus.

The God's way, as taught by Jesus, is different. "The way up is down. It's the poor in spirit, who are rich in the kingdom. It's those who mourn who will be happy. It's those who hunger and thirst who will be satisfied. It's the persecuted who will be blessed."

"The broken heart is the healed heart, ... the contrite spirit is the rejoicing spirit, ... the repenting soul is the victorious soul, ... to have nothing is to possess all, ... to bear the cross is to wear the crown, ... to give is to receive." [The Valley of Vision]

Dr. Jacob Mathew
Malankara World

(This message contains excerpts from the sermons by Adrian Dieleman and Steve Brandon.)

This Week in Church
Bible Readings

Monday of the Passion Week

Tuesday of the Passion Week.

Wednesday of the Passion Week

Passover (Maundy Thursday)

Lectionary of the Syrian Orthodox Church

We have greatly expanded our Sermon Resources. The sermon collection now includes general and classical sermons. This will give a broader appeal to the Gospel Reading for the week. We also added bible commentaries for the bible reading to facilitate study and meditation. Please check it out.

Sermons, Bible Commentaries and Bible Analyses for Pes'ho (Maundy Thursday)

More Sermons


In Agony Until the End of the World

By Father Raniero Cantalamessa, OFM Cap

It is written of Jesus on the Mount of Olives that he began "to feel sorrow and distress. Then he said to them, ‘My soul is sorrowful even to death. Remain here and keep watch with me.'" This is an unrecognizable Jesus! He who commanded the winds and the seas and they obeyed him, who told everyone not to fear, is now prey to sadness and anxiety. What is the reason? It is all contained in one word, the chalice: "My Father, if it is possible, let this chalice pass from me!"

The chalice indicates the whole mass of suffering that is about to come crashing down upon him. But not only this. It indicates above all the measure of divine justice that corresponds to men's sins and transgressions. It is "the sin of the world" that he has taken upon himself and that weighs on his heart like a boulder.

The philosopher Pascal said that "Christ is in agony on the Mount of Olives until the end of the world. He should not be abandoned during this whole time."

He is in agony wherever there is a human being that struggles with sadness, fear, anxiety, in a situation where there is no way out, as he was that day. We can do nothing for the Jesus who was suffering then but we can do something for the Jesus who is in agony today. Every day we hear of tragedies that occur, sometimes in our own building, in the apartment across the hall, without anyone being aware of it.

How many Mount of Olives, how many Gethsemanes in the heart of our cities! Let us not abandon those who are there within.

Let us now take ourselves to Calvary. "Jesus cried out in a loud voice: ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' And Jesus cried out again in a loud voice, and gave up his spirit."

I am now about to pronounce a blasphemy, but then I will explain. Jesus on the cross has become an atheist, one without God. There are two forms of atheism: the active or voluntary atheism of those who reject God, and the passive or suffered atheism of those who are rejected (or feel rejected) by God. In both forms there are those who are "without God." The former is an atheism of fault, and the latter is an atheism of suffering and expiation. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, about whom there was much discussion when her personal writings were published, belongs to this latter category.

On the cross Jesus expiated in anticipation all the atheism that exists in the world, not only that of declared atheists, but also that of practical atheists, the atheism of those who live "as if God did not exist," relegating him to the last place in their life. It is "our" atheism, because, in this sense, we are all atheists -- some more, some less -- those who do not care about God. God too is one of the "marginalized" today; he has been pushed to the margins of the lives of the majority of men.

Here too it is necessary to say: "Jesus is on the cross until the end of the world." He is in all the innocent who suffer. He is nailed to the cross of the gravely ill. The nails that hold him fast on the cross are the injustices that are committed against the poor. In a Nazi concentration camp a man was hung. Someone, pointing at the victim, angrily asked a believer who was standing next to him: "Where is your God now?" "Do you not see him?" he answered. "He is there hanging from the gallows."

In all of the depictions of the "deposition from the cross," the figure of Joseph of Arimathea always stands out. He represents all of those who, even today, challenge the regime or public opinion, to draw near to the condemned, the excluded, those sick with AIDS, and who are occupied with helping some of them to descend from the cross. For some those who are "crucified" today, the designated and awaited "Joseph of Arimathea" could very well be I or you.

Featured: A Week with the Lord

by Jeffrey S. J. Allan

Below is a reflection for Passion Sunday based on Saint Luke's account. I hope you have an intensely prayerful Holy Week. Happy Easter!

The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord until He comes when God will be everything to everyone. The liturgy thus shares in Jesus' desire: 'I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you' until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 'He took a cup, gave thanks, and said, Take this and share it among yourselves'. It's important to note that at this point the cup contains wine only; not the Blood of Jesus. Jesus is following the Jewish custom of the Passover whereby the father or leader at the table pours wine into a glass or cup, blesses the wine and passes it around the table for the family and guests. Jesus says: 'I tell you that from this time on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the Kingdom of God comes'; whenever the Church celebrates the Eucharist she remembers this promise and turns her gaze to Him Who is to come. 'He took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying: This is My Body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of Me. And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying: This cup is the new covenant in My Blood, which will be shed for you'. Now Passover customs are finished and this is the real deal. Jesus consecrates the bread and wine and changes it into His own Precious Body and Blood.

The Eucharist that Jesus institutes at this moment is the memorial of His Sacrifice which will very shortly occur. Jesus includes the apostles in His own offering and with the words, 'do this in memory of Me' instructs them to continue this as a perpetual memorial thus instituting them as priests of the New and Everlasting Covenant. Saint Cyril strengthens our faith in the Eucharist with these words: 'Do not doubt whether this is true, but rather receive the words of the Saviour in faith, for since He is the Truth, He cannot lie'.

Jesus next tells the apostles that He will be betrayed by one of them. His ability to know this in advance shows His Divinity. The apostles' apparent concern as to who would do such a thing immediately shifts to an argument as to which of them is the greatest. Jesus teaches them a lesson in greatness which is somewhat foreign to a worldly definition of greatness; the one who serves is the greatest, not the one who is served. Greatness in a worldly sense is often measured by ways such as political office held, financial status, athletic ability or even having a genius IQ; and most of these examples, if not all, lead others to be envious of such gifts, therefore, giving the illusion of greatness. When employed by Jesus, however, our capacity for love would seem to be the key. It takes love to serve willingly; it takes love to care for those who cannot care for themselves; it takes love to attempt to save innocent and defenceless life; it takes love to labour tirelessly for righteousness; and it takes love to pray for those who spit in the face of morality.

'It is you who have stood by Me in My trials; and I confer a Kingdom on you, just as My Father has conferred one on Me, that you may eat and drink at My table in My Kingdom'. These words express the fellowship of the Church with Jesus. Jesus associates His disciples with His own life, reveals the mystery of the Kingdom to them and gives them a share in His mission, joy and sufferings.

Jesus tells His apostles that they will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. From the beginning of His own Ministry Jesus chose these twelve men to share in His Ministry and now they are the foundation stones of the New Jerusalem and it is through them that Jesus guides and governs the Church.

'Simon, Simon, behold Satan has demanded to sift all of you like wheat, but I have prayed that your own faith may not fail; and once you have turned back, you must strengthen your brothers'. Simon Peter here is singled out as the leader of the apostles and is called upon to strengthen his brothers; and in these words is found not only what Satan desired but also what God permitted because it is through perseverance in trials that faith is strengthened. It should also be a source of great comfort to know that Christ prays for us in the midst of our trials. Saint Cyril has some interesting thoughts on these words to Peter as he shares: 'Admire the superabundance of the Divine patience. That the disciple might not lose courage, Jesus promises him pardon before he has committed the crime, and restores him again to his apostolic dignity'.

Although Peter believes he is prepared to go to prison and die with Jesus, Jesus foretells that he will deny Him three times. Jesus forewarns His apostles of the coming persecution by expressing that the one who does not have a sword should sell his cloak and buy one. Jesus was not speaking literally about a sword although the apostles mistakenly thought so which is why Jesus said, 'It is enough', when they pointed out that they have two swords. The Saviour's words, 'It is enough' is just another way of saying, 'Forget it, you don't understand'!

At the Mount of Olives Jesus instructs His disciples to pray that they may not undergo the test. "In Jesus the Kingdom of God is at hand. He calls His hearers to conversion and faith, but also to watchfulness. In prayer the disciple keeps watch, attentive to Him Who Is and Him Who Comes, in memory of His first coming in the lowliness of the flesh, and in the hope of His second coming in glory. In communion with their Master, the disciples' prayer is a battle; only by keeping watch in prayer can one avoid falling into temptation." (1)

Jesus, in His agony, consents to the Father's will by saying: 'Not My will but Yours be done'. To do the will of the Father is why Jesus came. There seems to be, however, a glimpse of His Human Nature when He says: 'Take this cup away from Me'. Internal struggles must have surely existed in a Person possessing both a Human and a Divine nature. Taking into consideration the assumed complexities of this dual-Natured God-Man, even with all the covenants and prophecies foretold throughout salvation history leading up to this moment of agony, you have to wonder if the redemption of humankind was somehow hanging in the balance in the Garden of Gethsemane. With the exception of committing sin, God fully embraced our way of life when He clothed Himself in flesh. It's a certainty that fear and apprehension is very much a part of our existence. Since Divine Providence has not fully revealed it nor has anyone else ever possessed both a divine and human nature, it's impossible to know for sure what was going on in Jesus' Heart when He said 'Take this cup away from Me.' It's also interesting that in this scene of Jesus' agony some of the ancient transcribers of the earlier texts purposely left out the portion of the text which tells of an angel appearing to Jesus to strengthen Him as well as the part about His Sweat becoming like drops of Blood falling to the ground. They left it out because they felt it was not consistent with the dignity of Jesus.

Once Jesus is apprehended beginning with the kiss of Judas, the apostles knew what was about to occur but still did not fully understand that it must happen, and therefore, one of them, in an attempt to defend Jesus took a sword and cut off the ear of the high priest's servant. Christ taught us to love our enemies and now we see the Teacher showing the students that He indeed practices what He preaches by healing the servant's ear.

Why did Jesus choose Judas to be an apostle? Why would He purposely choose someone that He knew would betray Him? It's a given that our Lord knew He would have to be crucified to save humanity but it doesn't seem feasible that the enemies of Jesus needed Judas in order to procure the capture of our Saviour. If Jesus' enemies wanted Him that badly it seems logical they would have caught up with Him eventually and seized Him. The answer to the Judas mystery might be found at the Last Supper. Jesus instituted the ministerial priesthood at the Last Supper and since Judas was one of the chosen twelve and present at the Last Supper he would have to be considered a valid priest. Maybe, just maybe the memory of Judas lingers on because Jesus put him forth as a reminder to His Church that not every priest will be holy, not every priest will be faithful, and occasionally there will be some wolves among the sheepfold. If this is the reason, then it would certainly be significant today when considering the current wounds that have been inflicted upon the Church.

Jesus' captors led Him away and took Him into the house of the high priest. Peter followed at a distance and is accused three times of being one who followed Jesus and knew Him. Peter denies it all three times and then the cock crowed thus making Jesus' prediction come true: 'I tell you, Peter, before the cock crows this day, you will deny three times that you know Me'. This scene is a reminder of something that perhaps we've all been guilty of at least one time in our life: 'The Family Room verses the Locker Room' -- behaving piously around pious people but afraid to express our love for Jesus when placed in a setting with people who might ridicule us for it. The Lord turned and looked at Peter and he began to weep bitterly. The Church refers to this look as a look of infinite mercy which drew tears of repentance from Peter. (2)

Jesus is sent to Pontius Pilate who listens to the people's false accusations against Jesus but Pilate believing that Jesus falls under Herod's jurisdiction sends Jesus to him. Pilate was actually obeying a Roman law which forbade a governor to condemn anyone who did not fall under his jurisdiction. Herod was longing to see Jesus and wanted to see some sort of miracle performed by Him. Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus which would make one conclude that Herod had no fears, suspicions or beliefs that Jesus was of divine origin. Herod sent Him back to Pilate. Pilate finds nothing in Jesus that is worthy of death plus he knew that if there was any crime committed, Herod would have seen to it that Jesus was punished. Pilate sees no evidence of a capital crime and so would rather have Jesus flogged and returned to His people. It was a customary Jewish practice to scourge those whose crimes were not worthy of death. The law in the Old Testament indicates that the number of lashes is not to exceed forty. (3) It should be noted, however, that the Latin Vulgate at this stage in this Gospel doesn't explicitly make any reference to having Jesus flogged or scourged. The Latin translates Pilate's words to mean: 'I will chastise Him, therefore, and release Him'. Chastisement may imply flogging but it could possibly be another form of punishment permissible by Roman law. Regardless of the form of punishment, let us not forget that Jesus has done nothing wrong thus making any form of punishment unwarranted.

Pilate is attempting to take the middle road by neither completely sparing an innocent Victim nor seeing to it that justice is served at least as far as Christ's accusers are concerned. Pilate, probably fearing some sort of a revolt, finally surrenders to the demands of the accusers and hands Jesus over to them. Notice that the text reads that Pilate handed Jesus over to His accusers for them to deal with Him as they wished; this political move spares Pilate of ever being accused of breaking Roman law. Barabbas is released from prison and is granted his freedom. To fulfil the will of the Father, Jesus came to take our place and we see indisputable evidence of this here with Jesus taking the place of Barabbas, a murderer and therefore the most hardened of sinners.

One of the themes that Saint Luke felt was important when writing his Gospel was the need to follow in Jesus' footsteps as he expressed in this portion of the Gospel by writing that Simon, a Cyrenian, carried the Cross behind Jesus and then following it up with the words: 'A large crowd of people followed Jesus, including many women who mourned and lamented Him'. Jesus' words to the lamenting women can be confusing; He is warning them that even though His death is necessary for the salvation of humanity, many evils will still invade the world to the point that barren women will be called blessed because they won't have to subject their children to these evils; and those who are subjected to it will plead to the mountains to fall on them and the hills to cover them. There's some symbolism here but it is meant to show that our true joy and happiness cannot be supplied by the world because anything of the world is temporary and perhaps even deceiving. The 'green wood' is symbolic of virtuous and holy people of whom Jesus is the Emblem; and the 'dry wood' represents evil and the condemned since it is dry wood that can be cast into the fire. These are not easy words to listen to or accept, but they come from One Who not only speaks the truth but is the Truth.

Jesus is led to a place called Calvary or the Skull which is located a short distance from Jerusalem. It is called the Skull because it is where criminals were often beheaded. Legend has it that it is also where the remains of Adam are buried. Jesus came to take the place of fallen humanity and now on the Cross we see Him centre stage, surrounded by fallen humanity: two criminals crucified with Him, one on His left and one on His right, as well as all the onlookers who were sneering at Him and tempting Him to save Himself if He is the Christ. Next we see the unfathomable ocean of mercy that knows no depths when our Lord says: 'Father, forgive them, they know not what they do'. This not only instructs us to forgive others but also reveals the need for intercessory prayer, not only for those who ask for our prayers but also for those who have harmed us. On the Cross Jesus is not only interceding for those who demanded and carried out His Crucifixion, but also for all of humanity -- past, present and future.

Saint Augustine summarizes that there are three dimensions to Jesus' prayer on the Cross: 'He prays for us as our Priest, prays in us as our Head, and is prayed to by us as our God'. On His Cross is the inscription, 'This is the King of the Jews'. The true meaning of His Kingship is revealed only when He is raised high on the Cross because on the tree is the Son of Man Who came not to be served but to serve, and to give His Life as a ransom for many.

Jesus promises Paradise to the one traditionally known as the good thief. He promises entry into Paradise on the very same day as the Crucifixion. It took Jesus three days to rise from the dead and then, according to the Acts of the Apostles (1:3), forty days later to ascend into heaven. This apparent inconsistency has led some of the saints to theologize about it like Saint Augustine who says that the soul of the good thief entered into heaven where Jesus was always present by His Divinity; Saint Cyril of Jerusalem says that the good thief was granted entrance even before the patriarchs and prophets; and Saint John Chrysostom believes that the good thief was actually the first person in all of humanity to enter into Paradise. Something else to consider is that when Jesus spoke the words 'this day' He was possibly referring to eternity where the element of time doesn't exist.

With all the trials and struggles of this life, we are constantly coming to the cross -- but which thief are you? Do you complain about your cross and tell God to get you out of your predicament; or do you faithfully accept whatever comes, trusting that at the end of it all, Paradise awaits you? For most of us, the characteristics of both thieves have been exhibited from time-to-time. There are good days and bad days! The goal, of course, is to always be like the good thief, accepting the cross and trusting that our Lord shares it with us and He will ultimately give us eternal joy and peace.

Just before Jesus breathes His last He cries out: "Father into Your Hands I commend My Spirit." The Church prays these very words in her 'Night Prayer' (Compline) just before retiring to bed. As the centurion witnessed what happened to Jesus he said: 'Vere hic Homo iustus erat -- Indeed this was a just Man'. It's difficult to speculate exactly what was on the centurion's heart at this moment but the text does read that he glorified God. Now, this could mean that he believed in God but it could also mean that he didn't believe in God but his words nevertheless were spoken under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, therefore glorifying God as well as exposing his words to God's children until the end of time. Did the centurion believe that Jesus was the Son of God? Probably not -- it's difficult to know for certain but not even the apostles at that time fully grasped the meaning of Jesus' death; and so, it would be a stretch to suggest that the centurion comprehended this occurrence of such theological depth; plus it's not likely that any bystander could ever believe that the Son of God could be killed. Almost certainly though, the centurion was extremely impressed with what he witnessed, watching a crucified Man asking His Father to forgive them because they know not what they do. Since Jesus did not return any insults or curse His executioners and blasphemers, the centurion must have seen Jesus minimally as a remarkably innocent and just Man.

How sad and abandoned the followers of Jesus must have felt when these events occurred. We have the luxury of knowing that it doesn't end here. We have also been given an incredible gift because of these events, namely the Eucharist. In the Eucharist, Christ gives us the very Body which He gave up for us on the Cross and the very Blood which He poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (4) The Mass represents the Sacrifice on the Cross. Saint Pio of Pietrelcina, a stigmatist, and perhaps more affectionately known as Padre Pio, once said: "It would be easier for the earth to carry on without the sun than without the Holy Mass."


1. CCC 2612

2. cf. CCC 1429

3. cf. Deuteronomy 25:3

4. cf: CCC 1365

Book: 'With Christ In the School of Prayer' by Andrew Murray

Lesson 31: 'Pray without ceasing' or A Life of Prayer
[Editor's Note: This is the final lesson from the book, 'With Christ in the School of Prayer' by Andrew Murray. With this chapter, we have covered the entire book. This book, often referenced, is a very important reference book on intercessional prayer, something Orthodox Church believes in greatly. Murray skillfully describes the role of the Holy Spirit within the church and exhorts Christians to use the blessings God has given us. This book is a guide to living a life as a temple of the Holy Spirit. If you have missed the earlier lessons, please read them in Malankara World. We hope that you enjoyed reading this book as much as we have enjoyed in bringing it to you.]

'Rejoice evermore. Pray without ceasing. In everything give thanks.
- I Thess. 5:16, 17, 18.

Our Lord spake the parable of the widow and the unjust judge to teach us that men ought to pray always and not faint. As the widow persevered in seeking one definite thing, the parable appears to have reference to persevering prayer for some one blessing, when God delays or appears to refuse. The words in the Epistles, which speak of continuing instant in prayer, continuing in prayer and watching in the same, of praying always in the Spirit, appear more to refer to the whole life being one of prayer. As the soul is filling with the longing for the manifestation of God's glory to us and in us, through us and around us, and with the confidence that He hears the prayers of His children; the inmost life of the soul is continually rising upward in dependence and faith, in longing desire and trustful expectation.

At the close of our meditations it will not be difficult to say what is needed to live such a life of prayer. The first thing is undoubtedly the entire sacrifice of the life to God's kingdom and glory. He who seeks to pray without ceasing because he wants to be very pious and good, will never attain to it. It is the forgetting of self and yielding ourselves to live for God and His honor that enlarges the heart, that teaches us to regard everything in the light of God and His will, and that instinctively recognizes in everything around us the need of God's help and blessing, an opportunity for His being glorified. Because everything is weighed and tested by the one thing that fills the heart - the glory of God, and because the soul has learnt that only what is of God can really be to Him and His glory, the whole life becomes a looking up, a crying from the inmost heart, for God to prove His power and love and so show forth His glory. The believer awakes to the consciousness that he is one of the watchmen on Zion's walls, one of the Lord's remembrancers, whose call does really touch and move the King in heaven to do what would otherwise not be done. He understands how real Paul's exhortation was, 'praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit for all the saints and for me,' and 'continue in prayer, withal praying also for us.' To forget oneself, to live for God and His kingdom among men, is the way to learn to pray without ceasing.

This life devoted to God must be accompanied by the deep confidence that our prayer is effectual. We have seen how our Blessed Lord insisted upon nothing so much in His prayer-lessons as faith in the Father as a God who most certainly does what we ask. 'Ask and ye shall receive;' count confidently on an answer, is with Him the beginning and the end of His teaching (compare Matt. 7:8 and John 16:24). In proportion as this assurance masters us, and it becomes a settled thing that our prayers do tell and that God does what we ask, we dare not neglect the use of this wonderful power: the soul turns wholly to God, and our life becomes prayer. We see that the Lord needs and takes time, because we and all around us are the creatures of time, under the law of growth; but knowing that not one single prayer of faith can possibly be lost that there is sometimes a needs-be for the storing up and accumulating of prayer, that persevering pray is irresistible, prayer becomes the quiet, persistent living of our life of desire and faith in the presence of our God. O do not let us any longer by our reasonings limit and enfeeble such free and sure promises of the living God, robbing them of their power, and ourselves of the wonderful confidence they are meant to inspire. Not in God, not in His secret will, not in the limitations of His promises, but in us, in ourselves is the hindrance; we are not what we should be to obtain the promise. Let us open our whole heart to God's words of promise in all their simplicity and truth: they will search us and humble us; they will lift us up and make us glad and strong. And to the faith that knows it gets what it asks, prayer is not a work or a burden, but a joy and a triumph; it becomes a necessity and a second nature.

This union of strong desire and firm confidence again is nothing but the life of the Holy Spirit within us. The Holy Spirit dwells in us, hides Himself in the depths of our being, and stirs the desire after the Unseen and the Divine, after God Himself. Now in groanings that cannot be uttered, then in clear and conscious assurance; now in special distinct petitions for the deeper revelation of Christ to ourselves, then in pleadings for a soul, a work, the Church or the world, it is always and alone the Holy Spirit who draws out the heart to thirst for God, to long for His being made known and glorified. Where the child of God really lives and walks in the Spirit, where he is not content to remain carnal, but seeks to be spiritual, in everything a fit organ for the Divine Spirit to reveal the life of Christ and Christ Himself, there the never-ceasing intercession-life of the Blessed Son cannot but reveal and repeat itself in our experience. Because it is the Spirit of Christ who prays in us, our prayer must be heard; because it is we who pray in the Spirit, there is need of time, and patience, and continual renewing of the prayer, until every obstacle be conquered, and the harmony between God's Spirit and ours is perfect.

But the chief thing we need for such a life of unceasing prayer is, to know that Jesus teaches us to pray. We have begun to understand a little what His teaching is. Not the communication of new thoughts or views, not the discovery of failure or error, not the stirring up of desire and faith, of however much importance all this be, but the taking us up into the fellowship of His own prayer-life before the Father - this it is by which Jesus really teaches. It was the sight of the praying Jesus that made the disciples long and ask to be taught to pray. It is the faith of the ever-praying Jesus, whose alone is the power to pray, that teaches us truly to pray. We know why: He who prays is our Head and our Life. All He has is ours and is given to us when we give ourselves all to Him. By His blood He leads us into the immediate presence of God. The inner sanctuary is our home, we dwell there. And He that lives so near God, and knows that He has been brought near to bless those who are far, cannot but pray. Christ makes us partakers with Himself of His prayer-power and prayer-life. We understand then that our true aim must not be to work much and have prayer enough to keep the work right, but to pray much and then to work enough for the power and blessing obtained in prayer to find its way through us to men. It is Christ who ever lives to pray, who saves and reigns. He communicates His prayer-life to us: He maintains it in us if we trust Him. He is surety for our praying without ceasing. Yes, Christ teaches to pray by showing how He does it, by doing it in us, by leading us to do it in Him and like Him. Christ is all, the life and the strength too for a never-ceasing prayer-life.

It is the sight of this, the sight of the ever-praying Christ as our life, that enables us to pray without ceasing. Because His priesthood is the power of an endless life, that resurrection-life that never fades and never fails, and because His life is our life, praying without ceasing can become to us nothing less than the life-joy of heaven. So the Apostle says: 'Rejoice evermore; pray without ceasing; in everything give thanks.' Borne up between the never-ceasing joy and the never-ceasing praise, never-ceasing prayer is the manifestation of the power of the eternal life, where Jesus always prays. The union between the Vine and the branch is in very deed a prayer-union. The highest conformity to Christ, the most blessed participation in the glory of His heavenly life, is that we take part in His work of intercession: He and we live ever to pray. In the experience of our union with Him, praying without ceasing becomes a possibility, a reality, the holiest and most blessed part of our holy and blessed fellowship with God. We have our abode within the veil, in the presence of the Father. What the Father says, we do; what the Son says, the Father does. Praying without ceasing is the earthly manifestation of heaven come down to us, the foretaste of the life where they rest not day or night in the song of worship and adoration.

LORD, TEACH US TO PRAY - Read in Malankara World

Previous Lessons (Archive)
Confession – Is It Still Necessary?

by Gary Zimak

One of the harsh realities facing the Church is the fact that many of her members no longer receive the sacrament of Confession on a regular basis. For one reason or another, many don't feel the need to go to Confession. Let's look at some of the common objections and discuss why the sacrament of Confession is still as relevant today as it was when Jesus instituted it 2000 years ago.

"I confess my sins directly to Christ. Why do I need to go through a 'middle man'?"

This may come as a surprise to some, but the Church teaches that when you go to Confession, you are speaking directly to Jesus. Why the need for a priest? For one thing, that's how the Lord designed the sacrament. In John 20:21-23, Jesus breathed on the Apostles and said "Receive the Holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained." Careful observation of Jesus' words will show that while He is giving the Apostles the ability to forgive sins, they are also receiving the authority to make a judgment. There are certain cases where absolution may be denied and that decision would be impossible without knowing the details of the offense. Therefore, verbal confession of sins is necessary. Another very logical argument for confessing your sins to another individual is that we tend to be very lenient with ourselves. Jesus was well aware of our human nature when He instituted the sacrament of Confession. Verbalizing your sins to another individual requires a much greater level of humility than confessing them in your own mind. Throughout the gospels, Our Lord stressed the importance of humility for His followers and this is one more way to practice that virtue.

"Jesus only gave that authority to His Apostles. It doesn't apply to priests!"

The Church teaches that the authority granted by Jesus to the original Apostles is passed down to their successors, the bishops. This is known as Apostolic Succession. Due to the large number of Christians in the world today, it would be impossible for the bishops to carry out their ministry effectively without help. For that reason, they are assisted in their mission by priests. In order to effectively assist the bishops, the authority to forgive or retain sins is also extended to priests.

"I thought that the Church did away with mortal sin."

Sadly, this is a very popular belief. Just for the record, the Church teaching on mortal (or grave) sin has not changed. There are some sins that render us incapable of eternal life and their intentional commission warrants the punishment of Hell. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church:

To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God's merciful love means remaining separated from him forever by our own free choice. This state of definitive self-exclusion from communion with God and the blessed is called "hell." (CCC 1033)

While the above quotation may frighten some, the good news is that all of our sins (mortal and venial) can be forgiven in the sacrament of Confession. We need only express sorrow for our sins and vow to refrain from committing them again. If we fail, there is no limit to the number of times we can seek forgiveness in the sacrament. God knows that human nature is weak and only asks that we try our best to avoid sin.

"You only have to go to Confession if you've committed a mortal sin."

While this is technically a true statement, there is much grace to be obtained even when only venial sins are committed:

Without being strictly necessary, confession of everyday faults (venial sins) is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit.

For many years, I neglected this great sacrament. I would go two or three times a year, mainly out of habit. I confessed the same sins each time, carefully avoiding any that were too controversial. My spiritual life was stuck in a rut and I wasn't making any substantial progress in avoiding sin. One day I heard something that changed my life: I learned that the pope went to Confession weekly! Realizing that I didn't understand the power of the sacrament, I decided that I would start confessing my sins bi-weekly. The results were incredible…For the first time in my life, I started making progress in avoiding my "favorite" sins. The sacramental grace received in Confession was helping me to become a better person!

If it's been a while since you've gone to Confession, I urge you to do as soon as possible. If you're not sure what to say, simply ask the priest and he will guide you. If you're concerned that the priest will reveal your sins to others, rest assured that he will not. He is forbidden (under threat of automatic excommunication) from revealing or making any use of any information heard in the confessional. If you've been carrying around guilt for a long time and wondering if God can ever forgive you…Hearing these words of absolution will assure you that God has indeed forgiven your sins!

God, the Father of mercies,
through the death and the resurrection of his Son
has reconciled the world to himself
and sent the Holy Spirit among us
for the forgiveness of sins;
through the ministry of the Church
may God give you pardon and peace,
and I absolve you from your sins
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.

About the Author:

Gary Zimak is the founder of Following The Truth Ministries (, a lay apostolate created to assist Catholics in learning more about their Faith. He is a regular guest on several other Catholic radio programs.

Jesus Christ Granted the Apostles His Authority to Forgive Sins - Scripture References
John 20:21 - before He grants them the authority to forgive sins, Jesus says to the apostles, "as the Father sent me, so I send you." As Christ was sent by the Father to forgive sins, so Christ sends the apostles and their successors forgive sins.

John 20:22 - the Lord "breathes" on the apostles, and then gives them the power to forgive and retain sins. The only other moment in Scripture where God breathes on man is in Gen. 2:7, when the Lord "breathes" divine life into man. When this happens, a significant transformation takes place.

John 20:23 - Jesus says, "If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven. If you retain the sins of any, they are retained." In order for the apostles to exercise this gift of forgiving sins, the penitents must orally confess their sins to them because the apostles are not mind readers. The text makes this very clear.

Matt. 9:8 - this verse shows that God has given the authority to forgive sins to "men." Hence, those Protestants who acknowledge that the apostles had the authority to forgive sins (which this verse demonstrates) must prove that this gift ended with the apostles. Otherwise, the apostles' successors still possess this gift. Where in Scripture is the gift of authority to forgive sins taken away from the apostles or their successors?

Matt. 9:6; Mark 2:10 - Christ forgave sins as a man (not God) to convince us that the "Son of man" has authority to forgive sins on earth.

Luke 5:24 - Luke also points out that Jesus' authority to forgive sins is as a man, not God. The Gospel writers record this to convince us that God has given this authority to men. This authority has been transferred from Christ to the apostles and their successors.

Matt. 18:18 - the apostles are given authority to bind and loose. The authority to bind and loose includes administering and removing the temporal penalties due to sin. The Jews understood this since the birth of the Church.

John 20:22-23; Matt. 18:18 - the power to remit/retain sin is also the power to remit/retain punishment due to sin. If Christ's ministers can forgive the eternal penalty of sin, they can certainly remit the temporal penalty of sin (which is called an "indulgence").

2 Cor. 2:10 - Paul forgives in the presence of Christ (some translations refer to the presences of Christ as "in persona Christi"). Some say that this may also be a reference to sins.

2 Cor. 5:18 - the ministry of reconciliation was given to the ambassadors of the Church. This ministry of reconciliation refers to the sacrament of reconciliation, also called the sacrament of confession or penance.

James 5:15-16 - in verse 15 we see that sins are forgiven by the priests in the sacrament of the sick. This is another example of man's authority to forgive sins on earth. Then in verse 16, James says "Therefore, confess our sins to one another," in reference to the men referred to in verse 15, the priests of the Church.

1 Tim. 2:5 - Christ is the only mediator, but He was free to decide how His mediation would be applied to us. The Lord chose to use priests of God to carry out His work of forgiveness.

Lev. 5:4-6; 19:21-22 - even under the Old Covenant, God used priests to forgive and atone for the sins of others.

What Does Maundy Thursday Mean?
A few days ago I jumped into a conversation with two people who wondered what Thursday of Holy Week was called. I quickly answered that some people refer to it as Holy Thursday, others as Maundy Thursday, and others as just Thursday.

It wasn't until a while later that I found myself wondering what the word "Maundy" meant. It's not immediately obvious and, to be honest, it's a funny word if you've never heard it before.

Etymologically, the consensus is that "Maundy" comes from the Latin word Mandatum (itself from the verb Mandare), which is translated "commandment."

In the context of Holy Week it refers to the commandment Jesus gave to his disciples while washing their feet, as recorded in John 13. Specifically, the commandment in John 13:34-35:

"A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another."

As a reminder of this commandment, some churches hold foot washing ceremonies on the Thursday of Holy Week. If you've never been a part of a foot washing ceremony, it's an incredibly humbling activity—one can imagine how difficult it would have been for the disciples to allow Jesus to humble himself in this way.


See Also:

Jesus Washes the Feet of the Disciples
It has been a long day. Jerusalem is packed with Passover guests, most of whom clamor for a glimpse of the Teacher. The spring sun is warm. The streets are dry. And the disciples are a long way from home. A splash of cool water would be refreshing. ..

A True Servant
Do you equate success with wealth, acclaim, and power? If we measured by these standards, then Jesus, who was rejected by His community and didn't even have a house of His own, was a failure. But, of course, we know that's not the case. So God must use something other than these worldly goals to define success. ...

Servant Leadership
In these verses (Mark 10:32-45), Jesus demonstrates what true spiritual leadership is. Jesus boils all of it down to two words: selfless service. The way to lead people spiritually is not by manipulation or by a special technique or through intimidation. On the contrary, genuine spiritual leadership takes place when you give of yourself sacrificially in service to others. ...

Christian Leadership - Given Divine Power to Act as Slaves
Let's consider what this passage (Luke 22:24-30) teaches us about the Christian vs. the non-Christian view of "greatness." Since Jesus uses the issue of greatness to contrast the self-serving attitude one finds in the world (which the disciples still seem to hold to at this point) (v. 25) with the attitude of selfless servanthood which He obviously wants them (and us) to adopt in its place (v. 26-28) ...

Holy Week Timeline: What happened on Holy Monday and Tuesday?

Holy Monday

The Cleansing of the Temple: Matthew 21:12-13

Jesus entered the temple courts and drove out all who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves. "It is written," he said to them, "'My house will be called a house of prayer,' but you are making it 'a den of robbers.'"

Holy Tuesday

The Fig Tree: Matthew 21:19-22

Seeing a fig tree by the road, he went up to it but found nothing on it except leaves. Then he said to it, "May you never bear fruit again!" Immediately the tree withered.

When the disciples saw this, they were amazed. "How did the fig tree wither so quickly?" they asked.

Jesus replied, "Truly I tell you, if you have faith and do not doubt, not only can you do what was done to the fig tree, but also you can say to this mountain, 'Go, throw yourself into the sea,' and it will be done. If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask for in prayer."

The Temple Debates: Matthew 21:23-23:39. Excerpt from 21:23-27:

Jesus entered the temple courts, and, while he was teaching, the chief priests and the elders of the people came to him. "By what authority are you doing these things?" they asked. "And who gave you this authority?"

Jesus replied, "I will also ask you one question. If you answer me, I will tell you by what authority I am doing these things. John's baptism—where did it come from? Was it from heaven, or of human origin?"

They discussed it among themselves and said, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will ask, 'Then why didn't you believe him?' But if we say, 'Of human origin'—we are afraid of the people, for they all hold that John was a prophet."

So they answered Jesus, "We don't know."

Then he said, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.

The Olivet Discourse: Matthew 24-25. Excerpt from 25:1-13:

"At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish and five were wise. The foolish ones took their lamps but did not take any oil with them. The wise ones, however, took oil in jars along with their lamps. The bridegroom was a long time in coming, and they all became drowsy and fell asleep.

"At midnight the cry rang out: 'Here's the bridegroom! Come out to meet him!'

"Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out.'

"'No,' they replied, 'there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead, go to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves.'

"But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut.

"Later the others also came. 'Lord, Lord,' they said, 'open the door for us!'

"But he replied, 'Truly I tell you, I don't know you.'

"Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour.


See Also:

Monday of Holy Pascha Week
More detailed look at events on Holy Monday

Tuesday of Holy Pascha Week
More detailed look at events on Holy Tuesday

Holy Week Timeline: What Happened on Holy Wednesday and Maundy Thursday?

Holy Wednesday

Judas Betrays Jesus: Matthew 26:14-16

Then one of the Twelve—the one called Judas Iscariot—went to the chief priests and asked, "What are you willing to give me if I deliver him over to you?" So they counted out for him thirty pieces of silver. From then on Judas watched for an opportunity to hand him over.

Maundy Thursday

Preparing the Upper Room: Matthew 26:17-19

On the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus and asked, "Where do you want us to make preparations for you to eat the Passover?"

He replied, "Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The Teacher says: My appointed time is near. I am going to celebrate the Passover with my disciples at your house.'" So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them and prepared the Passover.

The Last Supper: Matthew 26:20-35.

The following excerpt is from Matthew 26:26-29:

While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take and eat; this is my body."

Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom."

When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

Jesus Prays in Gethsemane: Matthew 26:36-46

Then Jesus went with his disciples to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to them, "Sit here while I go over there and pray." He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee along with him, and he began to be sorrowful and troubled. Then he said to them, "My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death. Stay here and keep watch with me."

Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, "My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will."

Then he returned to his disciples and found them sleeping. "Couldn't you men keep watch with me for one hour?" he asked Peter. "Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak."

He went away a second time and prayed, "My Father, if it is not possible for this cup to be taken away unless I drink it, may your will be done."

When he came back, he again found them sleeping, because their eyes were heavy. So he left them and went away once more and prayed the third time, saying the same thing.

Then he returned to the disciples and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour has come, and the Son of Man is delivered into the hands of sinners. Rise! Let us go! Here comes my betrayer!"


See Also:

Wednesday of Holy Pascha Week
More detailed look at events on Holy Wednesday

Thursday of Holy Pascha Week
More detailed look at events on Holy Thursday

Recipe: Pesaha Appam (Southern Kerala)

Elcy Yohannan Sakarathil

This is the way the Pesaha Appam is made in the southern side of Kottayam.


1. Rice Flour - 2 Cups

2. Cream of Rice - ½ cup
(Option: Soak 2 cups, ie. 1 pound long grain rice in water for 3 hrs, grind coarse)

1 cup grated coconut. Use the coconut water to grind the rice.)

3. Coconut, grated - 1 cup (Blended)

4. Dark Brown sugar - ½ cup (More for more sweetness)

5. Yeast + Sugar - ¼ Tsp + 1 tsp sugar in ¼ cup warm water

(Instead of yeast, save the coconut milk with 1 tsp raw rice grains, 1 tsp sugar , keep it in a warm place for a day, use that mixture to grind the rice. Also, if vellom (chakkara) is used, no yeast is needed. Or, one cup (pressed, not loose) of the crust-free soft bread could be used in place of yeast.)

6. 1 Table spoon farina boiled in ½ cup water (Paavu kachi).

7. Salt - ¼ tsp or enough to taste

8. Cumin powder - 1 tsp

9. Red or small onion - 1 Tbsp (blended)


Grind the mixture 1-4, to an Idli consistency, add the warm farina porridge (paav kachi), keep in a warm place for 6 hrs.

Place ¼ tsp yeast and 1 Tsp sugar in ¼ cup warm water, the solution will froth in 5 minutes, (or the substitutes) add it to the mixture, keep warm for 4 more hours.

Before cooking, add the salt and cumin powder, onion paste, pour into a greased pan, cook in a steam bath for 20 minutes, or till it is firm, test with a toothpick.

Raisins and cashews could be sprinkled on top of the Appam before cooking, for more taste and decoration. Usually the first Pesaha Appam is made plain (without the nuts and fruits)

Use the multiples of the measure for more pans of Appam. Usually 2 cups (200ml.cup) or one pound is enough to make one kinnam appam. Instead of dark brown sugar, if white color is preferred, use ½ cup sugar or more for more sweetness.

Yield: One Deep Dish - 10-12 pcs.

See Also:

Pesaha Appam (INRI appam)

Recipe for Pesaha Appam

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